The Westminster Assembly & Instrumental Music In Public Worship

Instrumental Music in Public Worship: History Surrounding the Westminster Assembly


By John L. Girardeau (Still Waters Revival Books, [1888] 2000), pp. 132, 133.

Before the Westminster Assembly of Divines undertook the office of preparing a Directory of Worship, the Parliament had authoritatively adopted measures looking to the removal of organs, along with other remains of Popery, from the churches of England. On the 20th of May, 1644, the commissioners from Scotland wrote to the General Assembly of their church and made the following statement among others: “We cannot but admire the good hand of God in the great things done here already, particularly that the covenant, the foundation of the whole work, is taken, Prelacy and the whole train thereof extirpated, the service-book in many places forsaken, plain and powerful preaching set up, many colleges in Cambridge provided with such ministers as are most zealous of the best reformation, altars removed, the communion in some places given at the table with sitting, THE GREAT ORGANS AT PAUL’S AND PETER’S IN WESTMINSTER TAKEN DOWN (emphasis added), images and many other monuments of idolatry defaced and abolished, the Chapel Royal at Whitehall purged and reformed; and all by authority, in a quiet manner, at noon-day, without tumult.”1 So thorough was the work of removing organs that the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says that “at the Revolution most of the organs in England had been destroyed.”2

When, therefore, the Assembly addressed itself to the task of framing a Directory for Worship, it found itself confronted by a condition of the churches of Great Britain in which the singing of psalms without instrumental accompaniment almost universally prevailed. In prescribing, consequently, the singing of psalms without making any allusion to the restoration of instrumental music, it must,

Fine Art Photography- An Abstract Art

Light is considered to be one important element in photography that helps in giving different effects on photos. Photos taken in natural light or in warm glow of incandescent light, the camera captures the effect of light on the objects and subjects. Though light is an integral part of every type of photography, in fine art photography it plays an important role in setting the mood and giving the texture to its subjects and props. Professional photographer understands how the lens and eye perceive the light color spectrum and therefore make complete use of light in photography. Natural light due to its inconsistent lighting projects different shades of the color spectrum. At midday, the blue portion of the color spectrum produces the clearest, sharpest pictures in bright light. Where as, at sunrise and sunset the red portion of the spectrum produces warmer pictures with a softer contrast. The direction of lighting in photography helps in creating different effects on the pictures. The different angles of light create different shadows and helps in changing the appearance of the subject. Different types of artificial lights like bulbs, tube lights, florescent lights and LED lights on panorama fixtures create different types of lighting environments and produces different effects.

Since fine art photography is related to art and is dedicated in producing pictures for aesthetic purposes, light is the core of this type of photography. Capturing the exquisite and beautiful pictures in different forms of light for exploring the meaning of any expression or emotion is one of the most difficult tasks and fine art photography is all about this. Fine art pictures taken by talented photographers are housed in museums and art galleries for their display. Framing is done to keep these exclusive photographs safe and secure. It also protects these masterpieces

Original artwork at Photography gallery San Diego

If you are interested in watching the artwork and would like to appreciate it then it is recommended to you that you should visit the Photography gallery San Diego. The photo galleries have gained immense popularity and many people ware using this kind of platform to showcase their talent in front of the audiences. If you look around then you will get to see many kind of arts. You will see it in the beautiful scenery of nature, in the wild life pictures, and the documentary picture collections that are use for displaying in the audiences. If you are a traditional culture lover and follower then you should visit the Photography gallery San Diego. At this art gallery you will get to enjoy some beautiful pictures, and vides of nature.

The photo galleries are the best place where you will see the photo lovers buying the artistic photography work and also the photo artist get a chance to showcase as well as sell their work. There are many artists in the world who do not get the opportunity or a good platform to present their talent in front of the people. It is very important when you want to buy the photo art work or you want to showcase your art; you have to find a renowned gallery for it.

There are numerous ways through which you can locate a famous gallery. Internet is one of reliable and convenient ways of finding the galleries. You will get a long list of galleries with the help of the internet. It is always suggested to you to do some amount of research on the gallery that you are choosing to buy artwork from. At Photography gallery San Diego you will get the opportunity to buy the unique art work and

Bollywood Horror movie Super Natural is ready to create a history in Horror Cinema

Bollywood is increasing influence in the world movie industry and how it is catching up with the big boy Hollywood. Bollywood and Hollywood are the two golden world of everyone dreams and their movie always creates history in both world. Showing something unusual and unseen is quite a great challenge for everyone but Hollywood movie -Paranormal Activity- had created a history in the world of horror cinema and become one of the largest selling movie and biggest film stories of this era. Till now not a single director and producer dare to challenge the horror cinema but now Producer Satish Reddy and Director Haroon Rashid are looking forward to break all the boundaries of horror movies and will create a history. Producer Satish Reddy and Director Haroon Rashid is bringing a -Super Natural Horror movie- which is shot in just 2 hours and 20 minute-long, in one take without a single cut with a crew of 17 peoples. They are on big way to scare audience through the movie -Super Natural- which is subject of laws of nature, or more figuratively, that which is said to exist above and beyond nature. After this movie the whole thinking of Horror cinema will change. Director Haroon Rashid said, -Bollywood is not behind from Hollywood. The special effect and advance technology in Bollywood movies fails Hollywood flicks. Now Bollywood overtook Hollywood in 2004 and has been leading ever since. Super Natural is the dream project of mine and it’s have the entire Hollywood horror element which have never used in Bollywood till now. And it will bring the new era in the Indian cinema- No one in Bollywood is doing more for mainstream horror movies right now than producer Satish Reddy is trying his best in Bollywood Horror flick. -People enjoying Hollywood Horror

On-line Cartoon Games For Kids

The massive favourites among on-line games for kids are small flash games you may be in a position to play immediately in your net browser without having to download any software. What makes these games thus common among youngsters is not simply that they are free and straightforward to access, the controls and objective of the games are very self-explanatory whereas the puzzles the games gift are troublesome enough to be engaging.
Because the games business advances, free on-line games are becoming further sophisticated, further intensive, and feature a lot of stunning graphics, however the foremost widespread online games typically remain folks who feature characters that are already acquainted to the player, from cartoons series on the telly or from animated films for instance.
Cartoon Games
Youngsters and teenagers are incredibly quick and versatile when it involves discerning the objectives and determining the controls of pc games, and several on-line games are designed so that the player can begin immediately, while not having to scan a protracted set of directions first. “Most people wish to play directly after they open an online game in their browser” says Rob Kuipers of, the foremost important South African on-line games portal. “Game producers apprehend this, they keep the controls simple to work out and usually integrate them into the first levels of game therefore that you just learn them whereas you play. After all, when you already grasp the characters and what they’re regarding, understanding how to play the game becomes even easier.” After you play an on-line cartoon game that includes the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, for instance, you already apprehend what the bad guys seem like, and you recognize what to try to to once you come across one amongst Shredder’s henchmen or after you encounter a

Pop singer Hayla is rightly called the Queen of Fast Rapping

Israel has always been in news for wars but this time it is a blond girl that has put this country on the world spectrum with her music. Pop singer Hayla is the pride of Israel and this is apparent from her headlining some of the country’s early Gay Pride Festivals, maximum TV appearances and most selling music records. She has been writing since her teen age and has inherited music from her family. Though she worked for a brief period in the Israeli army but that can’t deter her devotion towards music, humanity and world peace. She has toured the world several times and this time her music is going to take the US by storm.

Pop singer Hayla will be releasing Hayls Fusion in the US and the music aficionados there are waiting to the girl from Middle East singing and dancing on the US soil. The world has witnessed the courage of Israeli people and now they will see how a diminutive Israeli singer ruling the world of music with her words and steps. Many will awe to know that Hayla writes her song and she has been writing songs when she was just 15. It is quite impossible for a school going teenage girl to write and compose melodious music for the world viewers but Hayla has music in her blood.

Her fans call pop singer Hayla, the Queen of Fast Rapping and she deserves this name. Hayla has her own musical genre and she unveiled the talent she has inherited before the world when she was chosen from among a thousand singers to accompany the James Horner of Titanic fame. She has also toured the world as a singer-musician with Israeli-based Jewish Symphony. Hayla remembered her days as an Israeli soldier and the discipline she

Gossip Girls Fashion Handbags

Who did we talk about while Gossip Girl wasnt filming? It seems like so long ago (or so many posts ago) that I cant even remember. Wether you always agree with the shows stylists or not, its hard to argue that they dont make the celebrity style universe much more interesting. The Gossip Girls were known for their fashion and ahead-of fashion costums. The wonderful dresses, are all designed by famous professional designers. And the beautiful dresses, fashion handbags they had in the movie have been the gossip of fashion girls. And these girls like following them and buy the same or custom-tailored the same designer dresses and fashion handbags with the Gossip Girls.
While, as we all know that, the celebrities costums are usually designed by the toppest designers or of the luxuiest brand, so the prices of them are usually very high. And most of common girls cant afford them with the designer prices. So, there are always some local or online shops that provide designer fashion dresses and fashion handbags with discount prices. These cheaper dresses and are sometimes the styles of last season or last year, or of the end of season. Maybe some girls dont mind their out-of-fashion for they are designer ones. But, there are girls that just wanna the most popular designer dresses and fashion handbags, so they have to buy some replica fashion ones. Some manufacturers can make the same styles of dresses and fashion handbags just like the designer ones, and the materials are also similar. These replica fashion dresses and handbags can become the loved by most common girls. They are happy that they can wear the same styles of dresses and fashion handbags with the celebrities.
And if your girls are embarassed about the prices of the